Mesenchymal stem cells are non-tissue specific stem cells with powerful regeneration capabilities across many indications. As a result, mesenchymal stem cells are the most widely therapeutically administered stem cell type.
Mesenchymal stem cells use multiple biological mechanisms to promote the natural healing of injured or diseased tissue. It is important to note that although stem cells are defined by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into different cell types, stem cells regenerate damaged tissues through multiple different mechanisms. In fact, scientific data does not support the purported ‘cell replacement theory’ which proposes that stem cells directly replace injured cells with new cells. Furthermore, stem cells have been shown to exert their regenerative potency through: 1) immunomodulation; 2) host-tissue Regeneration through paracrine signal; and, 3) chemoattraction that tracks stem cells to the injury site (as shown in Figure 2). (Ref 1, 2)